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Because all particles in the Universe are subject to mutual gravitational attraction, this "background" gravitation can be thought of as a type of viscosity.
Solar systems and galaxies rotate against this background according to gravitational laws as set down by Newton. That is, the individual bodies involved, such as the Sun and its planets, move in accordance with Newtonian laws of gravity.
In smaller systems, such as a solar system, the effect of this "background gravitation" may be completely negligible. With larger celestial assemblies, such as galactic clusters, the outer parts of these assemblies must be subject to drag from the background gravitation which increases with their peripheral velocity with respect to the centre of gravity of the assembly.
A framework is sought by which this background gravitation may be quantized. It might be treated as a sort of viscosity, as with a paddle-wheel rotating in a liquid, or as a type of field. Bids are invited for a framework concept. Offers for further development by mathematical modelling or otherwise would be welcome. (ZBL148).
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Here is Darin Ragozzine's valuable review of the effects of very low level gravitation in the Universe, when acting in the presence of much large gravitational fields.
As a non-mathematical picture of the working of gravity in the Universe at large, this work is a highly useful addition to the public domain.
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